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The retina is the layer at the back of the eye that senses light and sends images to the brain. It is the innermost layer inside the eyeball.
What kind of Retinal diseases are seen?
Retinal diseases can be associated with ageing, diabetes, hypertension, high myopia,trauma to the eye or of genetic origin.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
Retinal Angiography (FFA - Fundus Fluorescein Angiography)
Screening program for Diabetic Retinopathy
Retinal surgeries like cryotheraphy, scleral buckling, vitrectomy, endolaser, membrane peeling, to name a few are carried out using the top of the range vitreo-retinal surgical equipment. All procedures are done as day care surgery.
Retinal detachment is a separation of the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer in the back of the eye from its outer layers. The retina is a transparent membrane in the back of the eye. It helps you see the images that are focused
on it by the cornea and the lens. Retinal detachments are often associated with a tear or hole in the retina through which eye fluids may leak into the sub-retinal space. This causes separation of the retina from the underlying
layers.If not treated early, retinal detachment can cause permanent vision loss.
Macular degeneration, often age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition that usually affects older adults and results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage to
the retina. It occurs in "dry" and "wet" forms. It is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults (>50 years). Macular degeneration can make it difficult or impossible to read or recognize faces, although enough
peripheral vision remains to allow other activities of daily life.
Although some macular dystrophies affecting younger individuals are sometimes referred to as macular degeneration, the term generally refers to age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD).
The retina is a network of visual receptors and nerves. It lies on the choroid, a network of blood vessels which supplies the retina with blood.
In the dry (nonexudative) form, cellular debris called drusen accumulates between the retina and the choroid, and the retina can become detached. In the wet (exudative) form, which is more severe, blood vessels grow up from the choroid
behind the retina, and the retina can also become detached. It can be treated with laser coagulation, and with medication that stops and sometimes reverses the growth of blood vessels.
Diabetes can affect virtually every part of the eye, such as the Lens (Early onset Cataract), Optic and other cranial nerves (Neuropathy, Neuritis), Eyelids (repeated infections), and the Retina. Retinopathy is the most common and
characteristic complication of diabetic eye disease.
As with other organs, the problems start with a decrease in blood supply to the retina. This leads to lack of oxygen to the retinal layers and creates a chain reaction in the retina leading to progressive disease. The earliest stage
is called Non-proliferative or Background Retinopathy. Small blood clots (hemorrhages) and areas of swelling (exudates) develop in the retinal layers. The patient usually does not have any visual complaints at this stage because
the central retina is spared.
You’re at risk of retinal detachment if you have posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), cataract surgery or an eye injury, are very short-sighted or have a family history of retinal detachment.
You may lose sight permanently in your affected eye. Whether you experience long-term damage to your vision, and the severity of this damage, mainly depends on whether your macula is affected in the detachment and for
how long your retina is detached.
This will depend on the type of Retinal Detachment you had, how successful your treatment has been and the type of work you do.
Macular Degeneration (also called age-related Macular Degeneration or AMD) is a condition in which the eye's macula breaks down, causing a gradual or sudden loss of central vision.
If you're over age 65, a smoker, or have a family member with AMD, you have an increased risk for Macular Degeneration.
Diabetic retinopathy is a condition in which high blood sugar causes retinal blood vessels to swell and leak blood.
Keeping your blood sugar at an even level can help prevent Diabetic Retinopathy. If you have high blood pressure, keeping that under control is helpful as well. Even controlled diabetes can lead to Diabetic Retinopathy,
so you should have your eyes examined once a year; that way, your doctor can begin treating any retinal damage as soon as possible.
Fluctuating blood sugar levels increase risk for this disease, as does long-term diabetes. Most people don't develop Diabetic Retinopathy until they've had diabetes for at least 10 years. However, adult onset (type
2) diabetics should be evaluated at the time of diagnosis and every year thereafter, whereas juvenile onset (type 1) diabetics should be evaluated five years after diagnosis and every year thereafter, at a minimum.
Aayush Eye Clinic Micro Surgery & Laser Centre A unit of Dr. Agarwals Eye Hospital